Significant Papers

The first International Conference on Field-programmable Logic and Applications (FPL) was held in 1991 at Oxford University. In the ensuing years, it has grown to be the largest meeting on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technologies and systems, and many important contributions have been published at the conference. This page provides the list of the most significant contributions from 1991 to 2014. The selection was made by an international Significant Papers Committee (SPC).

Only regular papers were considered and Google Scholar was used for citation counts. Since an objective process was desired, those papers having more than nine citations per year, or more than 100 overall citations, were included on an initial shortlist. Concurrently, an open call to the community was made through the FPGA mailing list, inviting nomination of papers with impact other than the number of citations. A total of 24 nominations were received and all papers that were not already on the initial shortlist (13 papers) were included in the final shortlist. The resulting 60 shortlisted papers were divided into five categories, each with a corresponding subcommittee. SPC members served on a subcommittee according to their expertise. Since some nominated papers were authored by SPC members, subcommittee chairs were chosen to have no conflict of interest with any of the papers within, and tasked with ensuring that no SPC member had conflicts of interest during the paper selection process. Following discussions within each subcommittee, recommendations were consolidated for the SPC. A final dialogue regarding the choices was then undertaken.

The total number of papers considered was 1765. This figure may be larger than the total number of full papers as it was not possible to distinguish them from posters in some cases. Through the process described, 27 papers were selected, representing 1.5% of the total. Inevitably, the inclusion and exclusion of certain papers will be the subject of debate; however, this list represents the best efforts of the SPC to ensure a fair and objective selection process.

Only the list of selected papers is presented here. A version with endorsements which will describe the impact of these papers on research and industrial development of FPL technologies and systems is forthcoming. It is hoped that this selection of papers will not only illustrate the exciting advances presented at FPL over the last 25 years, but that they will also help to inspire the next generation of researchers and industrialists who will continue to send their best papers to FPL during the next 25 years and beyond.

This list is also available in PDF format.

Applications and Benchmarks

An Assessment of the Suitability of FPGA-based Systems for use in Digital Signal Processing (1995)
Russell Petersen and Brad Hutchings

SONIC – a Plug-in Architecture for Video Processing (1999)
Simon Haynes, Peter Cheung, Wayne Luk and John Stone

Multitasking on FPGA Coprocessors (2000)
Harald Simmler, L. Levinson and Reinhard Männer

A Smith-Waterman Systolic Cell (2003)
Chi Yu, K. Kwong, Kin-Hong Lee and Philip Leong

Physical Unclonable Functions, FPGAs and Public-key Crypto for IP Protection (2007)
Jorge Guajardo, Sandeep Kumar, Geert Schrijen and Pim Tuyls

Performance Comparison of FPGA, GPU and CPU in Image Processing (2009)
Shuichi Asano, Tsutomu Maruyama and Yoshiki Yamaguchi

FPGA Implementations of the Round Two SHA-3 Candidates (2010)
Brian Baldwin, Andrew Byrne, Liang Lu, Mark Hamilton, Neil Hanley, Máire O'Neill and William Marnane

Accelerating Solvers for Global Atmospheric Equations Through Mixed-precision Data Flow Engine (2013)
Lin Gan, Haohuan Fu, Wayne Luk, Chao Yang, Wei Xue, Xiaomeng Huang, Youhui Zhang and Guangwen Yang


RaPiD – Reconfigurable Pipelined Datapath (1996)
C. Ebeling, D. Cronquist and P. Franklin

Stream Computations Organized for Reconfigurable Execution (SCORE) (2000)
Eylon Caspi, Michael Chu, Randy Huang, Joseph Yeh, John Wawrzynek and André DeHon

A Flexible Power Model for FPGAs (2002)
Kara Poon, Andy Yan and Steven Wilton

ADRES: An Architecture with Tightly-coupled VLIW Processor and Coarse-grained Reconfigurable Matrix (2003)
Bingfeng Mei, Serge Vernalde, Diederik Verkest, Hugo de Man and Rudy Lauwereins

A Dual-Vdd Low-power FPGA Architecture (2004)
Aman Gayasen, K. Lee, Narayanan Vijaykrishnan, Mahmut Kandemir, Mary-Jane Irwin and Tim Tuan

Design Methods and Tools

VPR: A New Packing, Placement and Routing Tool for FPGA Research (1997)
Vaughn Betz and Jonathan Rose

StReAm: Object-oriented Programming of Stream Architectures Using PAM-Blox (2000)
Oskar Mencer, Heiko Hübert, Martin Morf and Michael Flynn

The Impact of Pipelining on Energy per Operation in Field-programmable Gate Arrays (2004)
Steven Wilton, Su-Shin Ang and Wayne Luk

Enhanced Architectures, Design Methodologies and CAD Tools for Dynamic Reconfiguration of Xilinx FPGAs (2006)
Patrick Lysaght, Brandon Blodget, Jeff Mason, Jay Young and Brendan Bridgford

Dynamic Reconfiguration

Dynamic Reconfiguration of FPGAs (1993)
Patrick Lysaght and John Dunlop

A Virtual Hardware Operating System for the Xilinx XC6200 (1996)
Gordon Brebner

Virtualizing Hardware with Multi-context Reconfigurable Arrays (2003)
Rolf Enzler, Christian Plessl and Marco Platzner

Context-saving and -restoring for Multitasking in Reconfigurable Systems (2005)
Heiko Kalte and Mario Porrmann

ReCoBus-Builder – A Novel Tool and Technique to Build Statically and Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems for FPGAs (2008)
Dirk Koch, Christian Beckhoff and Jürgen Teich

FPGA Partial Reconfiguration via Configuration Scrubbing (2009)
Jonathan Heiner, Benjamin Sellers, Michael Wirthlin and Jeff Kalb

Security and Networks-on-Chip

Granidt: Towards Gigabit-rate Network Intrusion Detection Technology (2002)
Maya Gokhale, Dave Dubois, Andy Dubois, Mike Boorman, Steve Poole and Vic Hogsett

Networks-on-chip as Hardware Components of an OS for Reconfigurable Systems (2003)
Théodore Marescaux, Jean-Yves Mignolet, Andrei Bartic, W. Moffat, Diederik Verkest, Serge Vernalde and Rudy Lauwereins

Fast, Large-scale String Match for a 10Gbps FPGA-based Network Intrusion Detection System (2003)
Ioannis Sourdis and Dionisios Pnevmatikatos

The Power of Communication: Energy-efficient NoCs for FPGAs (2013)
Mohamed Abdelfattah and Vaughn Betz